The Pass and the Guarantee in the School : 1992 : Éric Laurent

by Julia Evans on January 1, 1992

This text was originally published in La Cause freudienne 20, 1992.

Translated by Philip Dravers and Vincent Dachy


Psychoanalytical Notebooks, Issue 2, Spring 1999, p127-136


From : The Pass and the Guarantee in the School – Eric Laurent. Or here

From : here

OR here


Freud’s desire

Lacanian deregulation

A singular community

Some bearings for the Pass

References to Jacques Lacan in order of appearance

-‘Founding Act’ of the École Freudienne de Paris by Jacques Lacan

See ‘Founding Act’ 21st June 1964: Jacques Lacan or here

– desire of Freud (Seminar XI).

Seminar XI: The Four Fundamental Concepts: 1963-1964 : beginning 15th January 1964 : Jacques Lacan or here

Probably p12 of Alan Sheridan’s translation : Seminar XI : 15th January 1964 : … So hysteria places us, I would say, on the track of some kind of original sin in analysis. There has to be one. The truth is perhaps simply one thing, namely, the desire of Freud himself, the fact that something, in Freud, was never analysed.

I had reached precisely this point when, by a strange coincidence, I was put into the position of having to give up my seminar.

What I had to say on the Names-of-the-Father had no other purpose, in fact, than to put in question the origin, to discover by what privilege Freud’s desire was able to find the entrance into the field of experience he designates as the unconscious.

It is absolutely essential that we should go back to this origin if we wish to put analysis on its feet.

In any case, such a mode of questioning in the field of experience …

See also : Introduction to the Names-of-the-Father Seminar : 20th November 1963: Jacques Lacan or here

– It is this opposition itself which Lacan takes up in his seminar The Ethics of Psychoanalysis. An ethics is not a moral ideal, it is that which permits the effective treatment of a mode of jouissance.

See Seminar VII: The ethics of psychoanalysis: 1959-1960: from 18th November 1959 : Jacques Lacan or here

– Let us refer ourselves to the end of Family Complexes (Complexes familiaux) of 1938

See Family Complexes in the Formation of the Individual: 1938: Jacques Lacan or here

– The guidelines of the experience will be defined from The Proposition of 9 October 1967

See ‘Proposal of 9th October 1967 
on the psychoanalyst of the School’: Jacques Lacan or here

References to Sigmund Freud in the text

– It is very precisely from this perspective that Lacan radically separates himself, independently of the fact that, through his adventures alone, he was not in the position of a psychoanalyst like all the others. He was wary of this identity of everybody with everybody else because it was exactly what Freud had denounced in Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. The only condition for such an identification is that the Ego Ideal be occupied by an object.

Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego : 1921 : Sigmund Freud : SEXVIII p69-143


Section II of Group Psychology and the analysis of the ego : 1921 : Sigmund Freud

LE BON’S DESCRIPTION OF THE GROUP MIND ‘Such also is approximately the state of the individual forming part of a psychological group. He is no longer conscious of his acts. In his case, as in the case of the hypnotized subject, at the same time that certain faculties are destroyed, others may be brought to a high degree of exaltation. Under the influence of a suggestion, he will undertake the accomplishment of certain acts with irresistible impetuosity. This impetuosity is the more irresistible in the case of groups than in that of the hypnotized subject, from the fact that, the suggestion being the same for all the individuals in the group, it gains in strength by reciprocity.’ (Ibid., 34.)

‘We see, then, that the disappearance of the conscious personality, the predominance of the unconscious personality, the turning by means of suggestion and contagion of feelings and ideas in an identical direction, the tendency to immediately transform the suggested ideas into acts; these, we see, are the principal characteristics of the individual forming part of a group. He is no longer himself, but has become an automaton who has ceased to be guided by his will.’ (Ibid., 35.)

Julia Evans

Practicing Lacanian Psychoanalyst, Earl’s Court, London

Further texts

Of the clinic : here

Lacanian Transmission : here

Some Lacanian History : here

Topology : here

From LW working groups : here

By Éric Laurent here

By Sigmund Freud here

Notes on texts by Sigmund Freud : here

By Jacques Lacan here

Notes on texts by Jacques Lacan here