Seminar X: The Anxiety (or Dread): 1962-1963: begins 14th November 1962: Jacques Lacan

by Julia Evans on November 14, 1962

This is the start of a work-in-progress to track down the references to which Lacan refers in Seminar X.  In particular, help is requested on references to Freud and finding on-line copies in English to Kierkegaard and Hegel and………..  [Updated 19th December 2011, 23rd December 2011, 7th January 2012, 21st October 2012, 18th February 2014, 31st July 2018]


1) [Updated 7.1.2012]   In the Walter Lowrie, 1957 translation, Kierkegaard’s title is translated as ‘The concept of dread’.  I prefer this translation of L’Angoisse.  {‘The Concept of Dread’ trans. by Walter Lowrie, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1957.}

2) Angst and Anxiety in Freud:

- Draft E How Anxiety Originates : 6th June 1894? : Sigmund Freud: See here

P81 of Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson’s translation :

If one accepts the theory so far, one has to insist that in anxiety neurosis there must be a deficit to be noted in sexual affect, in psychic libido, And this is confirmed by observation. If this connection is put before women patients, they are always indignant and declare that on the contrary they now have no desire whatever, and similar statements. Men often confirm the observation that since suffering from anxiety they have felt no sexual desire.

P81 of  Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson’s translation : An alienation is artificially brought about between the physicosexual act and its psychic working over. If the endogenous tension then increases further on its own account, it cannot be worked over and generates anxiety. Here libido can be present, but not at the same time as anxiety. Thus here psychic refusal is followed by psychic alienation; tension of endogenous origin is followed by induced tension.

P82 of  Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson’s translation :

On the whole the agreement is not so bad. Where there is an abundant development of physical sexual tension, but this cannot be turned into affect by psychic working over – because of insufficient development of psychic sexuality or because of the attempted suppression of the latter (defense), or of its falling into decay, or because of habitual alienation between physical and psychic sexuality – the sexual tension is transformed into anxiety. Thus a part is played in this by the accumulation of physical tension and the prevention of discharge in the psychic direction.

But why does the transformation take place specifically into anxiety? Anxiety is the sensation of the accumulation of another endogenous stimulus, the stimulus to breathing, a stimulus incapable of being worked over psychically apart from this; anxiety might therefore be employed for accumulated physical tension in general. Furthermore, if the symptoms of anxiety neurosis are examined more closely, one finds in the neurosis disjointed pieces of a major anxiety attack: namely, mere dyspnea, mere palpitations, mere feeling of anxiety, and a combination of these. Looked at more precisely, these are the paths of innervation that the physical sexual tension, ordinarily traverses even when it is about to be worked over psychically. [The dyspnea and palpitations belong to coitus; and while ordinarily they are employed only as subsidiary paths of discharge here they serve, so to speak, as the only outlets for the excitation.] This is once again a kind of conversion in anxiety neurosis, just as occurs in hysteria (another instance of their similarity); but in hysteria it is psychic excitation that takes a wrong path exclusively into the somatic field, where as here it is a physical tension, which can not enter the psychic field and therefore remains on the physical path. The two are very often combined.

That is as far as I have got today. The gaps badly need filling. I think it is incomplete, I lack something; but I believe the foundation is right .

- Lecture 25 – Anxiety : 1917 : in Part III – General Theory of the Neuroses of Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis: 1915-1917 (Published 1916-1917) : Sigmund Freud :

Freud’s Lecture 25 – Anxiety. See footnote 2 & 3 near the beginning for the translator’s note of the difference between Angst and Anxiety. & 3 or 4 pages in where Freud states

‘I will only say that I think ‘Angst’ relates to the state and disregards the object’ … ‘A certain ambiguity and indefiniteness in the use of the word ‘Angst’ will not have escaped you. By ‘anxiety’ we usually understand the subjective state into which we are put by perceiving the ‘generation of anxiety’ and we call this an affect. … But I do not think that with this enumeration we have arrived at the essence of an affect. We seem to see deeper in the case of some affects and to recognise that the core which holds the combination we have described together is the repetition of some particular significant experience.’ 2 pages further on ‘If we now pass over to consider neurotic anxiety, what fresh forms and situations are manifested by anxiety in neurotics?’ I am happy to leave this as is but Angoisse must always be distinguished from other forms of anxiety such as fear and so on.

Published in English:

Additional translation: The Seminar, Book X, Anxiety, translated by Adrian Price, Polity, Cambridge, 2014.

Jacques Lacan: Seminar X: Anxiety: 1962-1963. Cormac Gallagher’s translation, published by LacaninIreland, and available here. This is the translation which is quoted in the following. 

Date of Sessions and some references & quotations:

General Notes:

Lacan and Topology by Bruno de Florence : 8th October 2011

The function of the anxiety : 13th July 2006 (Rome) : François Leguil or here

I           14th November 1962

(p5) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

II         21st November 1962


Charles Blondel: La conscience morbide: 1919 (Translations available) JE will look for an on-line version.

The Concept of Dread (Anxiety) : 1844: Søren Kierkegaard : Available here.  Further details of Kierkegaard’s publications are available here.

G. W. F. Hegel: Phenomenology of the Spirit: 1807 Further references or on-line editions to be found.

David Rapoport (1953): On the psychoanalytic theory of affects: published in International Journal of Psychoanalysis: Vol 34, 3rd part: 1953: p166 – 198.


(p5) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

pII 15 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation quoted in Tracking Jacques Lacan’s development of the use of ‘logos’by Julia Evans updated on 1stAugust 2018 or here  

III        28th November 1962


Claude Lévy-Strauss: La pensée sauvage:  References to be found.

The Interpretation of Dreams: 1st November 1899 (published as 1900): Sigmund Freud : Available here

IV        5th December 1962

V         12th December 1962


Probable reference to Sacha Nacht – see the note below.


Ernest Jones (1910) : ‘Pathology of the Nightmare’ printed in Ernest Jones, ‘On Nightmares’ , International Psycho-analytical Library, The Hogarth Press, 1931 :  Some sections of this chapter are available here

VI        19th December 1962

VII       9th January 1963

VIII     16th January 1963


(p?) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

IX        23rd January 1963


The Direction of the Treatment and the Principles of its Power:10th-13th July 1958 : Jacques Lacan : Available here

Ego psychology and interpretation in psychoanalytic therapies (Case ‘fresh brains’) : December 1948 (New York) [1951] : Ernst Kris : Available here

Intellectual Inhibition & Disturbances in Eating (Dream ‘fresh brains’) : September 1933 [Published1938] : Melitta Schmideberg : Available here

Seminar X: 23rdJanuary 1963:  pIX 85 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation :  I note the existence, in the Psychoanalytic Quarterly, of the article by Phyllis Greenacre; ….. It is a very interesting article in many ways…. : General Problems of Acting-out : May 1949 (Montreal, Canada) : Phyllis Greenacre : Available here

Seminar X: 23rdJanuary 1963:  pIX 85 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : …. and evokes a memory for me: it was at the time about ten years ago when we had already received a visit from some investigators. : See Minutes of the meeting of the International Psychoanalytical Association : 30th July 1953 : Dr Heinz Hartmann (IPA President & Chairman of the Meeting) : Available here


Jacques Lacan comments Dream ‘fresh brains’ in Seminars I, III, VI & X and Function and Field of Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis : 26th & 27th September 1953 & Direction of the Treatment : 10th to 13th July 1958 : Available here

X         30th January 1963


Probable reference to Sacha Nacht – see the note below.


(p4 of Ch X) Margaret Little (1957): R:The analyst’s total response to his patient’s needs: International Journal for Psycho-Analysis, 1957: May – Aug 1957: Parts III – IV. [Updated 7.1.2012] And republished as p51 – 80 of Margaret I. Little, ‘Transference Neurosis and Transference Psychosis: Towards Basic Unity’, Aronson, New York & London, 1981:

Available here

Barbara Low (1935): The Psychological compensations of the analyst: International Journal of Psychoanalysis: Vol 16: January 1935

Thomas Szasz (1955): ‘On the theory of psychoanalytic treatment’. Paper read at the 22nd International Psychoanalytic Congress in Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA on the 7th March 1955. Published as: ‘On the experiences of the analyst in the Psychoanalytic situation: a contribution to the theory of Psychoanalytic treatment’: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association: Vol 4: p197 – 223.

pX 92 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : Countertransference and the Patient’s Response : 1951 : Margaret Little or here

XI        Missing from both this translation and the French 2004 version – see below.  This was a closed session when the Margaret Little,  Barbara Low & Thomas Szasz articles were commented on by Madame Aulagmier and Monsieur Granoff. (Julia Evans intends to produce a text  on this article to try to cover this gap.)

XII      27th February 1963


PXII 107 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : Countertransference and the Patient’s Response : 1951 : Margaret Little or here

Countertransference: 1956: Lucia E. Tower  : Available here

Margaret Little (1957) op.cit. : Available here

Barbara Low (1935): op. cit.


The Sadeian position in Jacques Lacan’s Seminar X & LacanianWorks posts by Julia Evans on January 16, 2012 or here

XIII     6th March 1963

XIV     13th March 1963

Countertransference: 1956: Lucia E. Tower  : Available  here

XV      20th March 1963


Countertransference: 1956: Lucia E. Tower  or  here


See The finger in the sand by Bruno de Florence on May 16, 2012 or here  for a discussion of the reference to Merleau-Ponty and Sartre.

(p175) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

XVI     26th March 1963

XVII    8th May 1963

XVIII  15th May 1963

XIX     22nd May 1963

XIX     22nd May 1963


p225 & 226: Chapter XIX of Cormac Gallagher’s translation.  This passage refers both to Theodor Reik & the ‘shofar’. Available here The Shofar (The Ram’s Horn): 1919: Theodor Reik or here

XX      29th May 1963

XXI     5th June 1963


Notes from the Reading Seminar VII Group on 5th January 2013 & 8th December 2012 (Seminar VII : 2nd & 9th December 1959 : p48) or here

Preliminary notes from Seminar VII: 2nd & 9th December 1959 : p38 & p48 (Jean-Bertrand Lefèvre-Pontalis’ intervention : meeting on 5th January 2013 & 8th December 2012 or here

XXII   12th June 1963

XXIII  19th June 1963

Adonis Huxley: Adonis and the Alphabet (U.S. title: Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow): 1956

XXIV  26th June 1963


Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena – a Study of the First Not-Me Possession : 30th May 1951 (London) [1953] : Donald W. Winnicott or here

XXV   3rd July 1963


Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena – a Study of the First Not-Me Possession : 30th May 1951 (London) [1953] : Donald W. Winnicott or here

The Concept of Dread (Anxiety) : 1844: Søren Kierkegaard : Available here.

Mourning and Melancholia: 1915 : Sigmund Freud : You will find Freud’s paper in English with the original German text laid out in the right hand column : published by : available here

Or Penguin Freud Library (pfl):  Volume 11 “On Metapsychology”: p245-269


(p307-308, 309) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

pXXV 237 of Cormc Gallagher’s translation : The function of the anxiety : 13th July 2006 (Rome) : François Leguil or here

Melancholia, the Pain of Existence and Moral Cowardice : October1988 : Éric Laurent or here

Relevant Session to be located:

The following reference was found on the internet as belonging to Sem X. Following a thorough search of Sem X, I became suspicious as it is nowhere…  :

Sacha Nacht (1961): Presented to the 22nd International Psychoanalytic Conference in Edinburgh: July to August 1961: ‘The curative factors in psychoanalysis’. Published in the International Journal of Psycho-analysis: Vol 43: 1963: p206 – 211.

Possibly Seminar X : 12th December 1962 : pV 37 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : For that matter moreover, I was preceded in this by the inventor of psychoanalysis himself who was indeed, as far as I know, someone who was at the level of a direct experience, that of patients, of mental patients, of those especially that are called with a greater rigour since Freud, neurotics.

But after all, this would not be a reason for remaining any longer than necessary on an epistemological questioning, if the place of desire, the way in which in which it hollows itself out (se creuse), was not at every instant – at every instant in our therapeutic position – presentified for us through a problem, which is the most concrete one of all, that of not allowing ourselves to engage on a false path, of not responding to it in the wrong way, of not responding inexactly to it, at least of considering recognised a certain goal that we pursue and which is not so clear. I remember having provoked indignation in the sort of colleague who knows on occasion how to barricade himself behind some bombast or other of fine sentiments designed to reassure someone or other, to have provoked indignation by saying that in analysis a cure only came in a way as a bonus.

This was seen as some sort of disdain for the one that we are responsible for, the person who is suffering. I was speaking from a methodological point of view. It is quite certain that our justification as well as our duty is to ameliorate the position of the subject. And I claim that nothing is more uncertain in the field that we are in than the concept of a cure.

Is an analysis which ends with the entry of the male or female patient into the third order a cure, even if the subject finds himself improved as regards his symptoms, and in a certain way, a certain order that he has reconquered enunciates the most express reservations about the ways, now seen by him as perverse, through which we have made him pass in order to make him enter [12.12.62 V 38] the kingdom of heaven.

Possibly Seminar X : 30th January 1963 : pX 90 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : What I would simply like to designate here, is that in connection with this case which is favourable and, if you wish, chosen in a part of the field particularly favourable to this problematic, what is decisive in this factor of progress which consists essentially in introducing the function of the cut.

See Seminar IV : The Object Relation & Freudian Structures 1956-1957 : begins 21st November 1956 : Jacques Lacan or here  for further reference to Sacha Nacht.

A Timeline

Further researches reveal the following (adapted from ‘Chronology: p209 to 211 of Dany Nobus: ‘Jacques Lacan and the Freudian Practice of Psychoanalysis’: Routledge: 2000):

1926, 4 November: creation of the Société Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP), the first association of French psychoanalysts.

1934, November: Lacan becomes a candidate (membre adhérent) of the SPP.

1936, 3 August:  Lacan attends the 14th Congress of the IPA at Marienbad (Máriánské Láznē, Czech Republic), where he presents ‘Le stade du miroir’.

1938, December:  Lacan finishes his analysis with Loewenstein and becomes a full member (membre titulaire) of the SPP.

1940, June: installation of the Vichy regime. The SPP suspends all its activities.

1946:  the SPP resumes its activities.

1948:  Lacan becomes a member of the Teaching Committee (Commission de l’Enseignement) of the SPP.

1949, 17 July:  Lacan attends the 16th Congress of the IPA in Zurich, where he presents another paper on the mirror-stage.

1951:  Lacan introduces sessions of variable length in his practice; this worries the other members of the SPP. During the following years he regularly explains his position without managing to convince his colleagues. Meanwhile, he gives a seminar on Freud’s Dora-case at his house, …

1951, 2 May:  ‘Some reflections on the Ego’, lecture at the British Psychoanalytic Society.

1951-1952: Seminar on Freud’s case of the Wolf Man.

1952, Summer:  Sacha Nacht (1901-1977), president of the SPP, presents his views on the organization of a new training institute (Institut de Psychanalyse).

1952, December:  Nacht resigns as director of the Institute, and Lacan is elected new director ad interim.

1952-1953:  Lacan’s seminar on Freud’s case of the Rat Man.

1953, 20 January:  Lacan is elected president of the SPP. Creation of the Société Française de Psychanalyse (SFP) by Daniel Lagache (1903-1972), Françoise Dolto (1908-1988) and Juliette Favez-Boutonnier (1903-1994); Lacan joins soon after.

1953, 8 July: Lacan gives the opening lecture at the SFP on the symbolic, the imaginary and the real.

1955, July: the IPA rejects the SFP’s request for affiliation.

1956, Winter:  first issue of the journal La Psychanalyse, containing Lacan’s ‘Rome Discourse, 23 September 1953’ and his translation of Heidegger’s ‘Logos’ 1951.

1959, July: the SFP renews its request for affiliation to the IPA. Nomination of a committee of enquiry.

1961, August: the SFP is accepted as an IPA Study Group on the condition that Lacan and Dolto are progressively removed from their training positions.

1963, August: the IPA stipulates that the SFP will lose its status if Lacan continues to be involved in training matters.

1963, 19 November:  a majority of SFP members decide to accept the IPA recommendation.

1963, 20 November: first and final session of Lacan’s seminar on ‘The Names-of-the-Father’.

1964, January:  Lacan starts a seminar on the foundations of psychoanalysis at the École Normale Supérieure (Rue d’Ulm. Paris), where he lectures under the auspices of the École Pratique des Hautes Études, a post for which Claude Lévi-Strauss and Louis Althusser have intervened on his behalf.

1964, 21 June:  Lacan found the École Freudienne de Paris (EFP).

1964, October:  final issue (8) of La Psychanalyse.

1965, 19 January: dissolution of the SFP (end of extract)

So Lacan and Nacht have form, is the background for this reference.  Nacht presents this text in 1961 just as steps are taken to remove Lacan from his training position.  I will add to this when I have seen this text which precedes Lacan’s Seminar X, The Anxiety or Dread, given 1962 to 1963.

References to be chased up:

‘preying mantis’ 3rd July 1963 & there are others……..

Published in French:

Jacques Lacan: Le Séminaire, Livre X, L’Angoisse:  Paris, Seuil:  June 9, 2004

This is a work in progress and please contact me with any other missing references.


Julia Evans

Practicing Lacanian Psychoanalyst, Earl’s Court, London


Further texts

Reading Seminar X  here

By Sigmund Freud here

Notes on texts by Sigmund Freud : here

By Jacques Lacan here

Notes on texts by Jacques Lacan here

Use of power here

Of the clinic : here

Lacanian Transmission : here

Some Lacanian History : here

Topology : here

From LW working groups : here